The American Civil War began in 1861. The 13th Amendment, effective December 1865, abolished slavery in the U.S. Slave and free state pairs.
|Slave states||North Carolina|
|Free states||New York ( Slave until 1799)|
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By 1780 , there were more than 10,000 blacks living in the city, many in makeshift tents. By 1785, the New York Manumission Society had been formed, and often referred to the ideals of the Revolution in their arguments on behalf of slaves.
Slavery was introduced to New York City when the Dutch settled the colony , bringing with them 11 African men in 1626 and three women in 1628.
In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery when it adopted a statute that provided for the freedom of every slave born after its enactment (once that individual reached the age of majority). Massachusetts was the first to abolish slavery outright, doing so by judicial decree in 1783.
During the American Revolutionary War, the British troops occupied New York City in 1776. The Crown promised freedom to slaves who left rebel masters, and thousands moved to the city for refuge with the British. By 1780 , 10,000 black people lived in New York.
17th century. In 1619, Dutch traders brought African slaves taken from a Spanish ship to Point Comfort. Several colonial colleges held enslaved people as workers and relied on them to operate.
Sometime after 1638, the first African slaves entered Rhode Island . They were sparse in the colony throughout the 17th century, with only 175 total African slaves in 1680.
The first black people to come to Portland were slaves , freed in 1780 when Massachusetts — Maine was then part of the state — outlawed slavery .
As many as 20 percent of colonial New Yorkers were enslaved Africans. First Dutch and then English merchants built the city’s local economy largely around supplying ships for the trade in slaves and in what slaves produced – sugar, tobacco, indigo, coffee, chocolate, and ultimately, cotton.
It was not until March 31, 1817 that the New York legislature ended two centuries of slavery within its borders, setting July 4, 1827 as the date of final emancipation and making New York the first state to pass a law for the total abolition of legal slavery.
The brutal episode changed the demographics of black New York . From 12,472 in 1860 , the black population decreased to 9,943 in 1865.
Slavery itself was never widespread in the North , though many of the region’s businessmen grew rich on the slave trade and investments in southern plantations. Between 1774 and 1804, all of the northern states abolished slavery , but the institution of slavery remained absolutely vital to the South.
It is generally agreed that African slaves first arrived in Massachusetts in the 1630’s, and slavery was legally sanctioned in 1641. During the colonial era, numerous laws were passed regulating movement and marriage among slaves , and Massachusetts residents actively participated in the slave trade.